Mycotoxins are substances (secondary metabolites) that are synthesized and excreted during the growth of a particular fungus (fungus). This substance is actually a defense of plant or plant seeds from parasitic attacks. If the fungi (fungus) die, then the production of mycotoxins will stop, but mycotoxins that have been formed are not lost. Mycotoxins are chemicals that are stable and can last for a long time. Mycotoxins are harmful substances because only a very small amount alone can cause some harm. Mycotoxicosis is a disease caused by toxins produced by fungi that are ingested together with contaminated feed ingredients.
Of the more than 100,000 known fungus species (fungi), only a few can produce mycotoxins. Some fungi (fungi) that are known to produce very dangerous mycotoxins in agriculture and livestock are Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium sp. It is also known that 1 species of fungus can produce more than 1 type of mycotoxin. Rarely there is only 1 mycotoxin per plant or grain type, there are usually 2 or more kinds of mycotoxins.
Mycotoxins can be produced during the planting period (field toxin) or after harvesting and during storage (storage toxin). The mycotoxins produced by Fusarium sp (eg trichothecenes, zearalenone, and fumonisins) usually belong to the toxin field. This mycotoxin is produced by the fungus during the process of growing the plants/grains when the weather conditions are not good such as warm weather or a prolonged cold, rainy season and high humidity.
Aflatoxin and ochratoxins are included in storage which is generally caused by Aspergillus and Penicillium in poor conditions. Storage toxin is produced when the feed material is harvested and stored in poor conditions such as too moist or wet.
It is not easy to detect problems associated with mycotoxins because the effects are varied depending on toxin/toxin (amount and duration consumed), animal (species, sex, age, breed, health, immune status, nutrition), feed conversion ratio, and environment (management, hygiene, temperature, etc.)The effects can start with no visible symptoms until the occurrence of rapid death. The amount and feed convertion ratio, containing mycotoxins affect the accumulation of mycotoxins present in the body. Although not immediately cause symptoms of mycotoxicosis, if it has reached the threshold of symptoms will appear. Chicken age also affects the incidence of mycotoxicosis.
Younger age is more susceptible to mycotoxicosis. Health status and stress also affect the incidence of mycotoxicosis. In stress conditions, the chicken will be more susceptible to mycotoxicosis. Genetics is also one of the incidents of mycotoxicosis. For example, ducks are more susceptible to mycotoxins than chickens. Sex also affects the incidence of mycotoxicosis.
If in a chicken population found cases that lead to the existence of seeds of disease, then of course the main step that must be done is to eliminate the factors that cause the disease. Usually the seeds of the disease appear caused by several factors such as viruses, toxins or certain stress conditions. Therefore, the results are very varied. Hopefully what we provide can be useful. Good Luck